Linear dichroism (LD) is the differential absorption between two orthogonal, linearly polarized states (A = AX – AY). LD is a measurement of the sample’s bulk property that is a result of the regular orientation of the molecules in the sample.
PEM Setting: half-wave retardation (λ/2)
Polarization Modulation: bottom || and ⊥ linear polarization
Lock-in reference: PEM’s 2nd harmonic (2f)
After the PEM, the light beam is modulated between two perpendicular, linearly polarized states at the modulator’s 2nd harmonic (2f)
Structural study and characterization in inorganic chemistry, polymer chemistry, material science, and biochemistry.
TYPICAL HEAD ASSEMBLIES
I/FS50 for UV-vis
II/FS42 for UV-vis and near IR
T. C. Oakberg, Application note– Linear and Circular Dichroism, Hinds Instruments, Inc. (1991).
B. Norden, Appl. Spectrsc. Rev.14, 157 (1978).
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