Vibrational Linear Dichroism
Vibrational linear dichroism (VLD) is the differential absorption between two orthogonal, linearly polarized light (A = A|| – A⊥ ). It is a measurement of the regularity of molecular orientations in a bulk sample.
PEM Setting: half-wave retardation (λ/2)
Polarization Modulation: bottom || and ⊥ linear polarization
Lock-in reference: PEM’s 2nd harmonic (2f)
Structural study and characterization for polymers; single crystals; liquid crystals; biochemical systems
TYPICAL HEAD ASSEMBLIES
L. A. Nafie and M. Diem, Appl. Spectrsc. 33, 130 (1979).
C. Marcott, Appl. Spectrsc. 38 , 442 (1984).
L. A. Nafie, Advances in Applied Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, ed. M. W. Mackenzie, (John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1988) p67.
T. Buffeteau and M. Pezolet, Appl. Spectrsc. 50, 948 (1996).
Contact us for more information about using PEMs in a VLD set-up.