* See our new PolSNAPTM Stokes Polarimeter, the latest in a series of instruments from Hinds, The Polarimetry Experts.
One method to represent light polarization is to use the Stokes vectors (I, Q, U, and V). A dual PEM system can be used to measure all four Stokes parameters simultaneously, thus to completely characterize the polarization state of light.
HOW STOKES PARAMETERS ARE MEASURED
I total intensity; proportional to the DC signal
Q linear polarization component at 0° or 90°; PEM2’s 2f frequency
U linear polarization component at 45°; PEM1's 2f frequency
V circular polarization component; PEM1's 1f frequency
Q, U, and V can be determined simultaneously at a fast data acquisition speed from the outputs of lock-ins I, II and III, respectively.
Astronomy; light source characterization; MSE diagnostic in Tokamak installations
DUAL PEM CONFIGURATIONS
COMPONENTSUniversal PEM Mount
Signaloc™ 2100 Analog, Dual-Phase Lock-in Amplifier
T. C. Oakberg, Application note – Stokes Polarimetry, Hinds Instruments, Inc. (1991).
Contact us for more information on using PEMs in Stokes applications.